The VPS server operates on the basis of physical hardware. There are two ways of VPS administration offered by providers – either the client rents the server and manages it independently or assigns the management functions to the hoster (the owner of the host). In the first case, you will be able to save money by choosing a tariff without administration. However, independent configuration and adjustment of the server require knowledge, skills, and time.
Assuming responsibility for hosting management, the client will have no one to make claims in case of shortcomings and errors in the work. If the hoster is engaged in administration, the risk of problems caused by incorrect server settings is reduced. Technical support is a kind of insurance that allows you to avoid situations where the site is down for a period of time.
How to Set up the VPS Operation?
If you still decide to set up a virtual server yourself, we suggest reading the instructions that will help you do it from scratch. Regardless of the type of operating system, the basic configuration steps are identical. When choosing a suitable hosting, it is important to pay attention to the characteristics of the processor (CPU). The presence of a large number of cores does not always indicate high power. For example, flagship models of modern processors with a base clock frequency of 1.6 GHz can outperform processors with a frequency index of 4 GHz. To set up the virtual server, you will have to perform several tasks in stages:
- Select the operating system.
- Adjust access consoles.
- Install the software.
- Ensure data protection on the server.
- Ensure uninterrupted access to the materials stored on the server – websites, applications, databases.
- Increase fault tolerance – the property of the system to maintain operability in case of failure of individual elements and parts.
Most of the listed tasks will have to be performed periodically again in order to eventually thoroughly debug the work of the platform. One of the options for the management console is the PuTTY program, which is easy to install and use. The basic software includes:
- Web server (accepts user requests in HTTP format). A popular option is Apache.
- Programs with ready-made scripts for the development of web applications. A popular option is PHP.
- Programs (management systems) for working with databases, for example, MySQL.
- A web interface for MySQL administration, for example, phpMyAdmin.
- Vsftpd is an FTP server for repository maintenance (data storage location). FTP protocol configuration follows the following scheme: the Server Manager tab, the Management tab, and the Add Roles and Components tab. After installing and launching the application, they create a user and a folder for FTP access.
- Applications for ensuring the operation of mail servers (organization of feedback). Popular options are Exim, Postfix, Sendmail.
This is a minimal list of programs that will help organize the full operation of the VPS. Installation of other applications is carried out by taking into account the tasks and specific goals of the client.
It is important to remember that self-configuration can lead to system failures. In order not to have to constantly correct shortcomings and mistakes, it is better to turn to professionals. The result is a high speed of configuration, correct operation of the virtual server and the sites stored on it, and reliable protection of information.
Features of Setting up the Virtual Server
Setting up a VPS server takes place in several stages. The initial steps are to select the Internet connection speed. Using a common Internet channel, for example, at a speed of 100 MB/s, does not mean that the site pages will actually load with such speed. If the channel is shared, it is used by all clients of the provider, which can lead to a decrease in the speed of the Internet connection. If you use a dedicated (private) channel with a speed of 10 MB/s or 50 MB/s, this means that the pages of your site will load with such speed.
The Application Layer Network Protocol (SSH) and the operating system are the starting points for the subsequent configuration of the virtual server. The first step is to log in with root level rights. Next steps:
- Updating the operating system.
- Adjustment of local variables, selection of console language, setting time, date, time zone.
- SSH access control (will help to increase the level of security and convenience for users).
- Configuring the firewall.
Together with the VPS, the client receives its own user environment. When working with a virtual server, the command line is usually used.
Preparing to run a virtual server
The transition from shared hosting to private takes a little time if a professional is involved. Beginners will have to enlist patience and study the sequence of actions in detail. The FTP protocol does not allow sending commands to the server. For this purpose, the SSH protocol is used, which provides access to the VPS. Connecting to a remote server via SSH makes it possible to enter commands. The advantages of the application include a high level of data security due to effective authentication and encryption protocols. After choosing a tariff plan, the hoster provides credentials:
- The IP address of the server.
- User name.
- Password to log in to the system.
Usually, the root level is granted, which means that there are privileges and no restrictions. When using a Unix operating system, you can connect to the VPS via the command line. When using Windows, pre-installation of the SSH application is required.
Choosing an operating system
The virtual hosting model provides two types of operating systems – Windows and Linux. If you use ASP technology developed by Microsoft, you will have to choose a Windows system a priori. Most virtual servers run on the Linux operating system with its popular variations like Debian, CentOS, Ubuntu, FreeBSD. These are adaptive versions that differ in a wide range of functionality for solving diverse tasks. An example of a convenient server is Ubuntu VPS server Hostzealot. The Linux system is free. The advantages of Windows are the support of DBMS (database management system) and several unique technologies. Experts recommend choosing Linux for ordinary web pages, Windows is suitable for the effective operation of a site with a lot of content and functions. Specific points:
- For projects where ASP.NET, VBScrpt technologies were used, only Windows is suitable.
- Projects that are built on files like WMA, WMV, will fully work only in a Windows environment.
- PHP and MySQL applications are better compatible with Linux (PHP and Linux code are written in the same language).
- SSH protocol in Linux is supported by default. When working with Windows, an additional installation of the application will be required.
Most of the programs used today load and function equally well on both systems. However, there are some limitations.
Windows is a simpler and more understandable option for many system administrators. To effectively manage and administer Linux, you will have to replenish your knowledge and skills. Among the advantages of Linux, it is worth noting the high speed and stability of work. This OS does not need constant administration and regular reboots in order for the applied configuration changes to take effect. Other advantages of Linux:
- The pricing plan of a virtual server running on Linux is about 20% cheaper than an analog built on Windows.
- Environment security. The attacks are mainly aimed at Wndows-based hostings .
- Versatility (the OS is focused on a variety of projects).
The Linux system is chosen to reduce costs. The Windows system is chosen to make full use of Microsoft technologies and products, to organize the work of complex projects with a large amount of data and overlapping functions.